Simple definition of carbon dating Cam girl deventer
If we neglect to ask how the greenhouse effect of various gases is quantified in terms of real, measurable thermodynamic properties, the idea of anthropogenic global warming may well survive long enough for us to ask how the carbon budget establishes that observed increases in CO is one of the lightest volatiles (materials of relatively low melting point), found in the mantle (Wilson, 1989).
The fluid nature of the aesthenosphere, or upper mantle of the earth, ensures that lighter volatiles are fractionated, buoyed towards the surface, and either extruded or outgassed into the atmosphere via volcanoes and faults.
If the statement of the USGS concerning volcanic CO is any indication of the reliability of expert consensus, it would seem that verifiable facts are eminently more trustworthy than professional opinion. Kerrick (2001) takes a grand total of 19 subaerial volcanoes, which on p.
568 is described as only 10% of "more than 100 subaerial volcanoes".
Volatiles, such as CO is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.
Although you might imagine that there is no air in the mantle, the chemical conditions favour oxidation, and shortages of oxygen ions are rare enough to ensure a strong presence of CO rather than a representative sample of the Troposphere.
The same potential problem exists with the observatory at Alert in Northern Canada, because it is located inside the circumpolar wind zone along with the Arctic Rift and thousands of venting seamounts along key parts of the Northwest Passage.
This may raise doubts concerning measurements taken at the La Jolla observatory, which is located near the focal point of a radial fault zone extending seaward from the San Andreas Fault (see imagery sourced to SIO, NOAA, USN, NGA, & GEBCO by Europa Technologies & Inegi, for Google Earth).
Then we read statements, such as this one courtesy of the USGS (2010): Scientists have calculated that volcanoes emit between about 130-230 million tonnes (145-255 million tons) of CO2 into the atmosphere every year (Gerlach, 1991).
This estimate includes both subaerial and submarine volcanoes, about in equal amounts.
Furthermore, the discovery of a surprising number of submarine volcanoes highlights the underestimation of global volcanism and provides a loose basis for an estimate that may partly explain ocean acidification and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels observed last century, as well as shedding much needed light on intensified polar spring melts.
Based on this brief literature survey, we may conclude that volcanic CO is exclusively anthropogenic.